Tiantan, Beijing

Tiantan, China

Tiantan, China

Tian Tan atau dalam Bahasa Indonesia, Kuil Surga adalah tempat pemujaan agama Tao yang terletak di Beijing Dibagun pada abad 15 M tepatnya dimulai tahun 1420 M (Dinasti Ming) dan dibuat di atas lahan seluas 2.700 KM².

Arsitekturnya menyimbolkan hubungan bumi dan langit (manusia dan Tuhannya). Ini berkaitan dengan kaisar sebagai anak langit dalam kepercayaan Mitologi Cina. Dibangun sebagai persembahan untuk langit. Ini adalah alasan mengapa Kota Terlarang berukuran lebih kecil, karena kaisar tidak berani membuat tempat tinggal yang lebih besar daripada kuil langit {Tuhan).

Tian Tan dikelilingi tembok yang panjang. Di bagian utara dibuat agak bulat menyimbolkan langit dan selatan persegi menyimbolkan bumi. Hal ini selaras dengan pemikiran Tiongkok kuno yang berbunyi Surga itu bulat dan bumi itu persegi. Bagian utara juga dibuat lebih tinggi dari bagian selatannya.

The Temple of Heaven was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1998 and was described as “a masterpiece of architecture and landscape design which simply and graphically illustrates a cosmogony of great importance for the evolution of one of the world’s great civilizations…” as the “symbolic layout and design of the Temple of Heaven had a profound influence on architecture and planning in the Far East over many centuries.”

The Temple grounds cover 2.73 km² of parkland and comprises three main groups of constructions, all built according to strict philosophical requirements:

The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests (祈年殿) is a magnificent triple-gabled circular building, 36 metres in diameter and 38 metres tall, built on three levels of marble stone base, where the Emperor prayed for good harvests. The building is completely wooden, with no nails. The original building was burned down by a fire caused by lightening in 1889. The current building was re-built several years after the incident.

The Imperial Vault of Heaven (皇穹宇) is a single-gabled circular building, built on a single level of marble stone base. It is located south of the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests and resembles it, but is smaller. It is surrounded by a smooth circular wall, the Echo Wall, that can transmit sounds over large distances. The Imperial Vault is connected to the Hall of Prayer by the Vermilion Steps Bridge, a 360 meter long raised walkway that slowly ascends from the Vault to the Hall of Prayer.

Circular Mound Altar

The Circular Mound Altar (圜丘坛) is the altar proper, located south of the Imperial Vault of Heaven. It is an empty circular platform on three levels of marble stones, each decorated by lavishly carved dragons. The numbers of various elements of the Altar, including its balusters and steps, are either the sacred number nine or its nonuples. The center of the altar is a round slate called the Heart of Heaven(天心石) or the Supreme Yang(太阳石), where the Emperor prayed for favorable weather. Thanks to the design of the altar, the sound of the prayer will be reflected by the guardrail, creating significant resonance, which was supposed to help the prayer communicate with the Heaven. The Altar was built in 1530 by the Jiajing Emperor and rebuilt in 1740.

Symbolism

Earth was represented by a square and Heaven by a circle; several features of the temple complex symbolize the connection of Heaven and Earth, of circle and square. The whole temple complex is surrounded by two cordons of walls; the outer wall has a taller, semi-circular northern end, representing Heaven, and a shorter, rectangular southern end, representing the Earth. Both the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests and the Circular Mound Altar are round, each standing on a square yard, again representing Heaven and Earth.

The number nine represents the Emperor and is evident in the design of the Circular Mound Altar: a single round marmor plate is surrounded by a ring of nine plates, then a ring of 18 plates, and so on for a total of nine surrounding rings, the outermost having 9×9 plates.

The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests has four inner, twelve middle and twelve outer pillars, representing the four seasons, twelve months and twelve traditional Chinese hours respectively. Combined together, the twelve middle and twelve outer pillars represent the traditional solar term.

All the buildings within the Temple have special dark blue roof tiles, representing the Heaven.

The Seven-Star Stone Group, east of the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest, represents the seven peaks of Taishan Mountain, a place of Heaven worship in classical China.

China - 20111020

Hello !. Nice to post this card to you. This in my firts card by postcrossing. In your profile, you write you like the card with palace, temple,church etc. Tiantan look as temple in Ming Dynasty and Qing Dinasty. I Hope you like this. At last for my wishes.

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